Why You Should Specify Stainless-Steel Screw Anchors When Designing for Corrosive Environments

Figure 1. Spalled concrete below a concrete bridge.

I was driving under a concrete bridge one nice clear day in Chicago, and I happened to look up to see rusted rebar exposed below a concrete bridge. My beautiful wife, who is not a structural engineer, turned to me and asked, “What happened to that bridge?” I explained that there are many reasons why spalling occurs below a bridge. One common reason is the expansion of steel when it rusts or corrodes.

This week’s blog will briefly explain the corrosion process and why concrete spalls when the embedded metals corrode. Corrosion may be defined as the degradation of a material as a reaction to its environment.1. As described in our previous SE Blog post, “Corrosion: The Issues, Code Requirements, Research and Solutions” dated January 3, 2013, corrosion of metallic surfaces is an electrochemical process. Because of moisture evaporation, concrete is a porous material. Water and oxygen molecules enter the pores of the concrete, and an electrochemical process occurs with the carbon-steel bar. The iron in the steel is oxidized, which then produces rust. A buildup of rust products at the surface of the carbon-steel bar exerts an expansive force on the concrete. Based on the amount of oxidation, the rust products of steel can occupy more than six times the volume of the original steel.2 Over time, further rust occurs and surface cracks will form. Eventually spalling will occur, exposing the rusted carbon steel bar. (See figure 1.)

Figure 2. Stages of corrosion.

Just as with reinforcing bars below a concrete bridge, cracking and spalling can occur when a carbon-steel anchor is used adjacent to a concrete edge. Simpson Strong-Tie® has many anchorage products that can be used in these conditions to prevent cracking. One specific product is the new stainless-steel Titen HD® screw anchor. This new innovative screw anchor is made up of Type 316 stainless steel. As seen in Figure 3, Type 316 stainless steel has a high level of resistance. This makes the stainless-steel Titen HD an excellent choice when it comes to an anchorage solution in corrosive environments. These environments include wastewater treatment plants, exterior handrails, exterior ledger attachments, stadium seating, central utility plants, and kitchens just to name a few.

Figure 3. Simpson Strong-Tie level of corrosion by material/coating.

Unlike expansion anchors, screw anchors require the leading threads to cut into predrilled holes. This can be easily achieved with hardened carbon-steel cutting threads. Stainless steel is not hard enough to cut into concrete. The new innovative stainless-steel Titen HD solves the problem by brazing heat-treated carbon-steel cutting threads to the surface of the stainless-steel tips of the screw anchor. (See figure 4.) These carbon-steel threads are hard enough to cut grooves into the surface of a predrilled hole, allowing the anchor to be installed with ease. The volume of the carbon-steel cutting threads is less than 1% of the stainless steel, reducing the buildup of rust that eventually spalls the concrete edge. Other stainless-steel screw anchor manufacturers in the market have a bi-metal product that attaches a full carbon-steel tip. This bi-metal screw anchors contain up to 18% carbon steel. Such a large amount of carbon steel can expand up to six times its volume when it corrodes and can spall the concrete when used adjacent to an edge.

Figure 4. Carbon-steel cutting threads.

Figure 5. Graphic representation of spalling in concrete adjacent to an edge.

When designing an anchorage solution for your next job in a corrosive environment, the stainless-steel Titen HD will provide the best resistance for corrosion, and also give the ability to drive these anchors into the concrete with ease. More information about the product can be obtained by visiting strongtie.com/thdss.

  1. Corrosion Technology Laboratory (https://corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov/corr_fundamentals.htm).
  2. Galvanized Rebar (http://www.concreteconstruction.net/how-to/repair/galvanized-rebar_o).

Stainless-Steel Titen HD®

The Next Era of Stainless-Steel Screw Anchor For Concrete and Masonry.


Shrinkage Compensation Devices

Over the weekend, I had the pleasure of watching my daughter in her cheer competition. I was amazed at all the intricate detail they had to remember and practice. The entire team had to move in sync to create a routine filed with jumps, tumbles, flyers and kicks. This attention to detail reminded me of the new ratcheting take-up device (RTUD) that Simpson Strong-Tie has just developed to accommodate 5/8″ and ¾” diameter rods. The synchronized movement of the internal inserts allows the rod to move smoothly through the device as it ratchets. The new RTUDs are cost effective and allow unlimited movement to mitigate wood shrinkage in a multi-story wood- framed building. When designing such a building, the Designer needs to consider the effect of shrinkage and how to properly mitigate it.

Our SE blog post on Continuous Rod Restraint Systems for Multi-Story Wood Structures explained the importance of load path and  the effects of wood shrinkage. This week’s blog post will focus on the importance of mitigating the shrinkage that typically occurs in multi-story light-frame buildings.

Shrinkage is natural in a wood member. As moisture reaches its equilibrium in a built environment, the volume of a wood member decreases. The decrease in moisture causes a wood-framed building to shrink.

The IBC allows construction of light-framed buildings up to 5 and 6 stories in the United States and Canada respectively. Based on the type of floor framing system, the incremental shrinkage can be up to ¼” or more per floor. In a 5-story building, that can add up to 1-¼” or more and possibly double that when construction settlement is included.

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Typical Example of gap forming between nut and plate when wood shrinkage at top level occurs without shrinkage device.

The Simpson Strong-Tie Wood Shrinkage Calculator is a perfect tool to determine the total shrinkage your building can experience.

Wood Shrinkage Calculator

Wood Shrinkage Calculator

In order to accommodate the shrinkage that occurs in a multi-story wood-framed building, Simpson Strong-Tie offers several shrinkage compensating devices. These devices have been tested per ICC-ES Acceptance Criteria 316 (AC316) and are listed under ICC-ES ESR-2320 (currently being updated for the new RTUD5, RTUD6, and ATUD9-3).

AC316 limits the rod elongation and device displacement to 0.2 inches between restraints in shearwalls. This deflection limit is to be used in calculating the total lateral drift of a light-framed wood shearwall.

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3 Part Shearwall Drift Equation

The 0.2-inch allowable limit prescribed in AC316 is important to a shearwall’s structural ability to transfer the necessary lateral loads through the structure below to the foundation level. This limit assures that the structural integrity of the nails and sill plates used to transfer the lateral loads through the shearwalls is not compromised during a seismic or wind event. Testing has shown that sill plates can crack when excessive deformation is observed in a shearwalls. Nails have also been observed to pull out during testing.  Additional information on this can be found here.

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Sill Plates Cracked due to excessive uplift at ends of shearwall.

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Nails pull out due to excessive uplift at ends of shearwall.

In AC316, 3 types of devices are listed.

  • Compression-Controlled Shrinkage Compensating Device (CCSCD): This type of device is controlled by compression loading, where the rod passes uninterrupted through the device. Simpson Strong-Tie has several screw-type take-up devices, such as the Aluminum Take-Up Device (ATUD) and the Steel Take-Up Device (TUD), of this type.
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ATUD (CCSCD)

  • Tension-Controlled Shrinkage Compensating Device (TCSCD): This type of device is controlled by tension loading, where the rod is attached or engaged by the device and allows the rod to ratchet through as the wood shrinks. The Simpson Strong-Tie Ratcheting Take-Up Device (RTUD) is of this type.

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RTUD (TCSCD)

  • Tension-controlled Shrinkage Compensating Coupling Device (TCSCCD): This type of device is controlled by tension loading that connects rods or anchors together. The Simpson Strong-Tie Coupling Take-Up Device (CTUD) is of this type.
CTUD (TCSCCD)

CTUD (TCSCCD)

Each device type has unique features that are important in achieving the best performance for different conditions and loads. The following table is a summary of each device.

rods9The most cost-effective Simpson Strong-Tie shrinkage compensation device is the RTUD. This device has the smallest number of components and allows the rod unlimited travel through the device. It is ideal at the top level of a rod system run or where small rod diameters are used. Simpson Strong-Tie RTUDs can now accommodate 5/8″ (RTUD5) and ¾” (RTUD6) diameter rods.

How do you choose the best device for your projects? A Designer will have to consider the following during their design.

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RTUD Assembly

Rod Tension (Overturning) Check:

  • Rods at each level designed to meet the cumulative overturning tension force per level
  • Standard and high-strength steel rods designed not to exceed tensile capacity as defined in AISC specification
    • Standard threaded rod based on 36 / 58 ksi (Fy/Fu)
    • High-strength Strong-Rod based on 92 / 120 ksi (Fy/Fu
    • H150 Strong-Rod based on 130 / 150 ksi (Fy/Fu)
  • Rod elongation (see below)

 Bearing Plate Check

  • Bearing plates designed to transfer incremental overturning force per level into the rod
  • Bearing stress on wood member limited in accordance with the NDS to provide proper bearing capacity and limit wood crushing
  • Bearing plate thickness has been sized to limit plate bending in order to provide full bearing on wood member

 Shrinkage Take-Up Device Check

  • Shrinkage take-up device is selected to accommodate estimated wood shrinkage to eliminate gaps in the system load path
  • Load capacity of the take-up device compared with incremental overturning force to ensure that load is transferred into rod
  • Shrinkage compensation device deflection is included in system displacement

 Movement/Deflection Check

  • System deformation is an integral design component impacting the selection of rods, bearing plates and shrinkage take-up devices
  • Rod elongation plus take-up device displacement is limited to a maximum of 0.2″ per level or as further limited by the requirements of the engineer or jurisdiction
  • Total system deformation reported for use in Δa term (total vertical elongation of wall anchorage system per NDS equation) when calculating shearwall deflection
  • Both seating increment (ΔR) and deflection at allowable load (ΔA) are included in the overall system movement. These are listed in the evaluation report ICC-ES ESR-2320 for take-up devices

 Optional Compression Post Design

  • Compression post design can be performed upon request along with the Strong-Rod System
  • Compression post design limited to buckling or bearing perpendicular to grain on wood plate
  • Anchorage design tools are available
  • Anchorage design information conforms to AC 318 anchorage provisions and Simpson Strong-Tie testing

In order to properly design a continuous rod tie-down system for your shearwall overturning restraint, all of the factors listed above will need to be taken into consideration.

A Designer can also contact Simpson Strong-Tie by going to www.strongtie.com/srs and filling out the online “Contact Us” page to have Simpson Strong-Tie design the continuous rod tie-down system for you. This design service does not cost you a dime. A few items will be required from the Designer in order for Simpson Strong-Tie to create a cost-effective rod run (it is recommended that on the Designer specify these in the construction documents):

  • There is a maximum system displacement of 0.2″ per level, which includes rod elongation and shrinkage compensation device deflection. Some jurisdictions may impose a smaller deflection limit.
  • Bearing plates and shrinkage compensation devices are required at every level.
  • Cumulative and incremental forces must be listed at each level in Allowable Stress Design (ASD) force levels.
  • Construction documents must include drawings and calculations proving that design requirements have been met. These drawings and calculations should be submitted to the Designer for review and the Authority Having Jurisdiction for approval.

More information can be obtained from our website at www.strongtie.com/srs, where a new design guide for the U.S., F-L-SRS15, and a new catalog for Canada, C-L-SRSCAN16, are available for download.

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US Design Guide F-L-SRS15 and Canadian Catalog C-L-SRSCAN16

Seismic Bracing Requirements for Nonstructural Components

Have you ever been at home during an earthquake and the lights turned off due to a loss of power?  Imagine what it would be like to be in a hospital on an operating table during an earthquake or for a ceiling to fall on you while you are lying on your hospital bed.

One of the last things you want is to experience serious electrical, mechanical or plumbing failures during or after a seismic event. During the 1994 Northridge earthquake, 80%-90% of the damage to buildings was to nonstructural components. Ten key hospitals in the area were temporarily inoperable primarily because of water damage, broken glass, dangling light fixtures or lack of emergency power.

Complete loss of suspended ceilings and light fixtures in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Complete loss of suspended ceilings and light fixtures in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Broken sprinkler pipe at Olive View Hospital in Sylmar, California after the 1994 Northridggde, Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Broken sprinkler pipe at Olive View Hospital in Sylmar, California after the 1994 Northridggde, Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

ASCE 7 has an entire chapter titled Seismic Design Requirement of Nonstructural Components (Chapter 13 of ASCE 7-10) that is devoted to provisions on seismic bracing of nonstructural components. Unfortunately, not a lot of Designers are aware of this part of the ASCE. This blog post will walk Designers through the ASCE 7 requirements.

Nonstructural components consist of architectural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing utilities. Chapter 13 of ASCE 7-10 establishes the minimum design criteria for nonstructural components permanently attached to structures. First, we need to introduce some of the terminology that is used in Chapter 13 of ASCE 7.

seismicbrace3

  • Component – the mechanical equipment or utility.
  • Support – the method to transfer the loads from the component to the structure.
  • Attachment – the method of actual attachment to the structure.
  • Importance Factor (Ip) – identifies which components are required to be fully functioning during and after a seismic event. This factor also identifies components that may contain toxic chemicals, explosive substances, or hazardous material in excess of certain quantities. This is typically determined by the Designer.

Section 13.2.1 of ASCE 7 requires architectural, mechanical and electrical components to be designed and anchored per criteria listed in Table 13.2-1 below.

seismicbrace4

Architectural components consist of furniture, interior partition walls, ceilings, lights, fans, exterior cladding, exterior walls, etc. This list may seem minor compared to structural components, but if these components are not properly secured, they can fall and hurt the occupants or prevent them from escaping a building during a seismic event. The risk of fire also increases during an earthquake, further endangering the occupants.

Failure of office partitions and ceilings during the Northridge 1994 Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Failure of office partitions and ceilings during the Northridge 1994 Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Damage to overloaded  storage racks during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Damage to overloaded storage racks during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Section 13.5 of ASCE 7-10 includes the necessary requirements for seismic bracing of architectural components. Table 13.5-1 provides various architectural components and the seismic coefficients required to determine the force level the attachments and supports are to be designed for.

Mechanical and electrical components consist of floor-mounted and suspended equipment. It also includes suspended distributed utilities such as ducts, pipes or conduits. These components are essential in providing the necessary functions of a building. In a hospital, these components are required to be fully functioning both during and after a seismic event. A disruption of these components can make an entire hospital building unusable. In order for hospitals to properly service the needs of the public after a seismic event, fully functioning equipment is essential.

Failed attachments to a chiller after the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Failed attachments to a chiller after the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. (FEMA 74, 1994)

Section 13.6 of ASCE 7-10 provides the requirements of seismic bracing for mechanical and electrical components. Table 13.6-1 provides a list of typical components and the coefficients required to determine the force level the attachments and supports are to be designed for.

Chapter 13 lists some typical requirements for which components are to be anchored and supported under specific conditions:

  1. Section 13.1.4 item 6c: Any component weighing more than 400 pounds.
  2. Section 13.1.4 item 6c: Any component where its center of gravity is more than 4 feet above the floor.
  3. Section 13.6.5.6 has specific electrical conduit size and weight requirements.
  4. Section 13.6.7 has specific size and weight requirements for suspended duct systems.
  5. Section 13.6.7 has specific size and weight requirements for suspended piping systems.

The chapter also has some general exceptions to the rules:

  1. 12 Inch Rule: When a distributed system such as conduit ducts or pipes are suspended from the structure with hangers less than 12 inches in length, seismic bracing is not required.
  2. If the support carrying multiple pipes or conduits weighs less than 10 pound/feet of lineal weight of the component, the seismic bracing of the support does not have to be considered.
Example of a support with multiple pipes and the hanger rod length. These exceptions do have limitations, which that are clearly listed in Ssections 13.6.5.6, 13.6.7 and 13.6.8.

Example of a support with multiple pipes and the hanger rod length.

These exceptions do have limitations that are clearly listed in Sections 13.6.5.6, 13.6.7 and 13.6.8.

These systems may not seem important in the structural systems of a building, but they are essential in allowing the building to function the way it was designed to serve the public. It is also important that occupants are able to escape a damaged building after a seismic event. Obstacles such as bookcases blocking exit doors or falling debris may prevent occupants from leaving a building after a seismic event.

It is important that Designers are aware of these code requirements and take the time to read and understand what is needed to provide a safe structure.

 

Kids + Structural Engineering = The Tech Challenge!

Our future is in good hands.

Our future is in good hands.

This week’s post comes from Marlou Rodriguez who is an R&D Engineer at our home office. Prior to joining Simpson Strong-Tie, Marlou worked as a consulting engineer. His experience includes commercial, multi-family residential, curtain wall systems and the design of seismic bracing for non-structural components. Marlou is a licensed professional Civil and Structural Engineer in California, and too many other states to list. He received his bachelor’s degree in Architectural Engineering from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. Here is Marlou’s post.

I recently had the amazing opportunity to volunteer as a judge at The Tech Museum of Innovation’s The Tech Challenge 2015 in San Jose, Calif. My role involved evaluating projects designed by teams of students in grades 4-12 whose challenge was to build an earthquake-safe structure.

The museum’s annual Tech Challenge is a great event that excites young minds by introducing kids ages 8-18 to the science and engineering design process with a hands-on project based on solving a real-world problem. This year’s challenge was to build a scaled structure that supports live load and is earthquake safe. Simpson Strong-Tie was a sponsor of this year’s event and I was excited to be invited as a judge.

While The Tech Challenge is always focused on solving a real-world problem, no one could have anticipated how real this one would become. On the first day, April 25, I woke up to the horrifying news that a 7.8 magnitude earthquake had devastated Nepal. Thousands of lives were affected by this devastating earthquake. On that morning, this terrible tragedy thousands of miles away really highlighted how important this design challenge really is.

Teams with their structures.

Teams with their structures.

The Tech Challenge spans two days and is divided into three categories: elementary, middle and high school. The judging process consists of two phases. The first phase – a Pre-Performance Interview – gives students a chance to be creative in presenting their teams and designs. They discuss their roles within their team, describe how they chose their design and materials, and explain their method for solving problems and challenges. The second phase places their structures on a test rig and simulates three earthquake movements to test stability. Each structure was judged on its ability to:

  • Stay standing during all three seismic events
  • Return back to its original position
  • Perform with the least amount of drift or the horizontal movement at the top most part of the structure.

As an engineer, I have spent 20 years designing structures to withstand earthquakes. But when I was in elementary school years ago, my thoughts were focused on which parking lot with new curbs, banks and rails or empty pools I could skateboard in. These kids are spending their weekends thinking of how to come up with a system to vertically support a high-rise building and ways to laterally support the building while dissipating the seismic energy induced by the testing rig.

It was amazing to see the ideas the children had in their designs. There were structures with fixed bases, some with innovative base isolation systems and even a few with mass dampers attached to the top of the structure. The lateral systems chosen by the children consisted of moment frames, braced frames and solid core systems – closely resembling the systems used in most buildings today.

The design rules included:

  • Plan dimension of the building was limited to 16” square, while the base of the building could not exceed 20” square
  • Structure height could not exceed six feet
  • Floor-to-ceiling height had to be a minimum of 5 inches
  • Gravity weight of the structure could not exceed 7 lbs.

In addition, there were some size and length limitations for the supporting materials, based on grade levels, and an additional live load was added to the structure by using bolts that were inserted into drilled holes. Not only did the teams have to adhere to the rules, but they also had to calculate the area of living space within their structure. All of these rules, calculations and how they overcame the challenges had to be documented in a detailed journal.

A design from an elementary school team.

A design from an elementary school team.

One design that stuck out to me was developed by a team of elementary school children. I had the pleasure of conducting their pre-performance interview. They had a typical rectangular building with an interior compression member made of stacked plastic PVC pipes. The lateral system comprised of some tension wires that were attached to the top of the building at the interior PVC column. The tension wires were angled as they went through the floors and finally attached to the four corners at the base. The central PVC column bear on the base but was not directly attached to the base. This was a form of base isolation. The four tension wires attached to the four corners of the building were turned toward the central PVC column and attached via a spring. The spring acted as a way for the central column to return to its original position. The design was very interesting and had some innovative features built into it. I could only imagine how it would have performed in the device performance phase of the event, since I wasn’t able to observe that part.

Structure designed by the elementary school team.

Structure designed by the elementary school team.

Close up of the base isolation of the team’s structure.

Close up of the base isolation of the team’s structure.

Earthquakes occur all over the world. These natural occurring events profoundly affect and change people’s lives. Although there are a lot of buildings that withstand earthquakes, there are still a lot of failures of existing buildings. Structural engineers learn from these failures and develop building codes and innovative products to resist future earthquakes. These future scientists, engineers and innovators that I had a pleasure of meeting are truly amazing kids. What struck me was how well these children were able to document their thought process and how they developed their final design. It makes me believe the future of this world is in great hands. I can’t wait to come back next year to judge another challenge.

Thanks for reading our blog – have a nice holiday weekend!