Welcome to our Structural Engineering Blog! I’m Paul McEntee, Engineering R&D Manager at Simpson Strong-Tie. We’ll cover a variety of structural engineering topics here that I hope interest you and help with your projects and work. Social media is “uncharted territory” for a lot of us (me included!), but we here at Simpson Strong-Tie think this is a good way to connect and even start useful discussions among our peers in a way that’s easy to use and doesn’t take up too much of your time. Continue reading
Have you ever been at home during an earthquake and the lights turned off due to a loss of power? Imagine what it would be like to be in a hospital on an operating table during an earthquake or for a ceiling to fall on you while you are lying on your hospital bed.
One of the last things you want is to experience serious electrical, mechanical or plumbing failures during or after a seismic event. During the 1994 Northridge earthquake, 80%-90% of the damage to buildings was to nonstructural components. Ten key hospitals in the area were temporarily inoperable primarily because of water damage, broken glass, dangling light fixtures or lack of emergency power.
ASCE 7 has an entire chapter titled Seismic Design Requirement of Nonstructural Components (Chapter 13 of ASCE 7-10) that is devoted to provisions on seismic bracing of nonstructural components. Unfortunately, not a lot of Designers are aware of this part of the ASCE. This blog post will walk Designers through the ASCE 7 requirements.
Nonstructural components consist of architectural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing utilities. Chapter 13 of ASCE 7-10 establishes the minimum design criteria for nonstructural components permanently attached to structures. First, we need to introduce some of the terminology that is used in Chapter 13 of ASCE 7.
- Component – the mechanical equipment or utility.
- Support – the method to transfer the loads from the component to the structure.
- Attachment – the method of actual attachment to the structure.
- Importance Factor (Ip) – identifies which components are required to be fully functioning during and after a seismic event. This factor also identifies components that may contain toxic chemicals, explosive substances, or hazardous material in excess of certain quantities. This is typically determined by the Designer.
Section 13.2.1 of ASCE 7 requires architectural, mechanical and electrical components to be designed and anchored per criteria listed in Table 13.2-1 below.
Architectural components consist of furniture, interior partition walls, ceilings, lights, fans, exterior cladding, exterior walls, etc. This list may seem minor compared to structural components, but if these components are not properly secured, they can fall and hurt the occupants or prevent them from escaping a building during a seismic event. The risk of fire also increases during an earthquake, further endangering the occupants.
Section 13.5 of ASCE 7-10 includes the necessary requirements for seismic bracing of architectural components. Table 13.5-1 provides various architectural components and the seismic coefficients required to determine the force level the attachments and supports are to be designed for.
Mechanical and electrical components consist of floor-mounted and suspended equipment. It also includes suspended distributed utilities such as ducts, pipes or conduits. These components are essential in providing the necessary functions of a building. In a hospital, these components are required to be fully functioning both during and after a seismic event. A disruption of these components can make an entire hospital building unusable. In order for hospitals to properly service the needs of the public after a seismic event, fully functioning equipment is essential.
Section 13.6 of ASCE 7-10 provides the requirements of seismic bracing for mechanical and electrical components. Table 13.6-1 provides a list of typical components and the coefficients required to determine the force level the attachments and supports are to be designed for.
Chapter 13 lists some typical requirements for which components are to be anchored and supported under specific conditions:
- Section 13.1.4 item 6c: Any component weighing more than 400 pounds.
- Section 13.1.4 item 6c: Any component where its center of gravity is more than 4 feet above the floor.
- Section 220.127.116.11 has specific electrical conduit size and weight requirements.
- Section 13.6.7 has specific size and weight requirements for suspended duct systems.
- Section 13.6.7 has specific size and weight requirements for suspended piping systems.
The chapter also has some general exceptions to the rules:
- 12 Inch Rule: When a distributed system such as conduit ducts or pipes are suspended from the structure with hangers less than 12 inches in length, seismic bracing is not required.
- If the support carrying multiple pipes or conduits weighs less than 10 pound/feet of lineal weight of the component, the seismic bracing of the support does not have to be considered.
These exceptions do have limitations that are clearly listed in Sections 18.104.22.168, 13.6.7 and 13.6.8.
These systems may not seem important in the structural systems of a building, but they are essential in allowing the building to function the way it was designed to serve the public. It is also important that occupants are able to escape a damaged building after a seismic event. Obstacles such as bookcases blocking exit doors or falling debris may prevent occupants from leaving a building after a seismic event.
It is important that Designers are aware of these code requirements and take the time to read and understand what is needed to provide a safe structure.
A deck and porch study reported that 33% of deck failure-related injuries over the 5-year study period were attributed to guard or railing failures. While the importance of a deck guard is widely known, there was a significant omission from my May 2014 post on Wood-framed Deck Design Resources for Engineers regarding the design of deck guards.
A good starting point for information about wood-framed guard posts is a two-part article published in the October 2014 and January 2015 issues of Civil + Structural Engineer magazine. “Building Strong Guards, Part 1” provides an overview of typical wood-framed decks, the related code requirements and several examples that aim to demonstrate code-compliance through an analysis approach. The article discusses the difficulties in making an adequate connection at the bottom of a guard post, which involve countering the moment generated by the live load being applied at the top of the post. Other connections in a typical guard are not as difficult to design through analysis. This is due to common component geometries resulting in the rails and balusters/in-fill being simple-supported rather than cantilevered. “Building Strong Guards, Part 2” provides information on the testing approach to demonstrate code-compliance. Information about code requirements and testing criteria are included in the article as well.
Research and commentary from Virginia Tech on the performance of several tested guard post details for residential applications (36” guard height above decking) is featured in an article titled “Tested Guardrail Post Connections for Residential Decks” in the July 2007 issue of Structure magazine. Research showed that the common construction practice of attaching a 4×4 guard post to a 2x band joist with either ½” diameter lag screws or bolts, fell significantly below the 500 pound horizontal load target due to inadequate load transfer from the band joist into the surrounding deck floor framing. Ultimately, the research found that anchoring the post with a holdown installed horizontally provided enough leverage to meet the target load. The article also discussed the importance of testing to 500 pounds (which provides a safety factor of 2.5 over the 200-pound code live load), and the testing with a horizontal outward load to represent the worst-case safety scenario of a person falling away from the deck surface.
Simpson Strong-Tie has tested several connection options for a guard post at the typical 36” height, subjected to a horizontal outward load. Holdown solutions are included in our T-GRDRLPST10 technical bulletin. In response to recent industry interest, guard post details utilizing blocking and Strong-Drive® SDWS TIMBER screws have been developed (see picture below for a test view) and recently released in the engineering letter L-F-SDWSGRD15. The number of screws and the blocking shown are a reflection of the issue previously identified by the Virginia Tech researchers – an adequate load path must be provided to have sufficient support.
Have you found any other resources that have been helpful in your guard post designs? Let us know by posting a comment.
Simpson Strong-Tie is sponsoring the 24th Short Course on Cold-Formed Steel Structures hosted by the Wei-Wen Yu Center for Cold-Formed Steel Structures (CCFSS). The course will be held on October 27-29, 2015 at the Drury Plaza Hotel at the Arch in St. Louis, MO.
This three-day course is for engineers who have limited or no experience designing with cold-formed steel (CFS), as well as those with experience who would like to expand their knowledge of cold-formed steel structural design. Lectures will be given by industry-recognized experts Roger LaBoube, Ph.D., P.E., and Sutton Stephens, Ph.D., P.E., S.E. The course is based on the 2012 AISI North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members and the 2012 North American Standards for Cold-Formed Steel Framing. Dr. Wei-Wen Yu’s book Cold-Formed Steel Design (4th Edition) will be a reference text.
The course will address such topics as design of wall studs, floor joists, purlins, girts, decks and panels. It is eligible for 2.4 Continuing Education Units (CEUs). Advance registration is requested by October 10, 2015. For more information and to register, click here.
While the contents of this blog are certainly not what Abraham Lincoln had in mind when he made the statement that I’m using to title this blog post, it does speak volumes to the pertinence of what will be discussed today. “Design by others” or some variation of this appears in many parts of Simpson Strong-Tie details.
Simpson Strong-Tie receives technical calls from contractors and plans examiners inquiring about information that requires input from the Designer. When these calls occur during construction there can be confusion and frustration in the field because the Designer is needed to evaluate and resolve the issue. Designers and engineers that identify these conditions ahead of time will reduce confusion and delays on their projects.
The Strong-Wall® shearwall product line uses several iterations of “design by others” within its installation details. It is important to note that many details within the installation drawings may require input from the Designer when certain conditions exist.
For example, Detail 7 on SSW2 shows an alternate first-story installation where the Steel Strong-Wall shearwall bypasses the floor framing and bears directly onto concrete. A ledger may be attached to the shearwall to support perpendicular floor framing. The specification of the hanger and attachment is project specific and would require evaluation by the Designer.
This condition is also on the Strong-Wall SB shearwall installation details as seen in the following detail. The detail is generic and requires attachment information from the Designer. When these conditions do not exist on the project, it may be beneficial to cross out the detail or delete and state “not used” to lessen confusion during plan check and construction.
The note “Foundation Dimensions are for Anchorage only. Foundation design (size and reinforcement) by others” can be found in multiple locations on the Wood Strong-Wall, Steel Strong-Wall and Strong-Wall Shear Brace detail sheets.
Soil type and loading conditions not related to the product design vary from project to project and cannot be designed into a one-size-fits-all foundation solution. Thus, the information provided by Simpson Strong-Tie in the installation drawings only addresses the concrete anchorage requirements of ACI 318 (Section D5.2.9/ACI 318-11; Section 22.214.171.124/ACI318-14). These details assume no reinforcement in the footing, resulting in rather large foundations. Since design requirements vary with every project, it’s important for Designers to evaluate and verify each condition.
The new Steel Strong-Wall shearwall grade beam solutions reduce the size of the footings required for anchorage. However, the Designer must specify the grade beam reinforcement for proper performance. The details for the grade beam solutions (see SSW1.1 sheet) are based on ACI 318 and testing that was conducted by Simpson Strong-Tie.
For the grade beam solutions, Designers have two options:
(1) Design grade beam to resist the moment induced from amplified forces to the anchor, or
(2) The lesser of the tabulated moment or the amplified LRFD design moment for seismic (ASD Shear / 0.7) x Ω0 x (SSW Height).
Furthermore, the Designer is responsible for specifying the size and number of shear and flexural reinforcement throughout the grade beam beyond the anchor reinforcement depicted in the details.
Delivery of forces to the Strong-Wall shearwall (to the top of wall), including properly sizing the structural members, should be based on project specific requirements.
Strong Frame® Moment Frames
Simpson Strong-Tie Strong Frame® ordinary moment frames and special moment frames contain similar requirements for the Designer. Moment frames have been discussed many times in this blog: Special Moment Frame Installation: What Structural Engineers Should Watch For, Steel Moment Frame Beam Bracing and Breaking News: Simpson Strong-Tie Strong Frame Special Moment Frame Testing Today.
The notes on SMF2 state “Footing/Grade beam size and reinforcing shall be specified by the Designer as required to resist the imposed loads, such as foundation shear and bending, soil bearing pressure, shear transfer, and frame stability/overturning.”
Moment frame foundation solutions are based on satisfying the minimum concrete anchorage requirements. Detailing can be a crucial area for this product line as it is common to find deeper footings at these locations, which should be reflected on your construction documents.
Like Strong Wall shearwalls, Designers must evaluate the project conditions and detail the load path of the forces to the resisting element (in this case the Strong Frame moment frame). Ensuring proper transfer of forces that are detailed within your construction documents will reduce headaches down the road.
Strong-Rod™ systems are continuous rod tiedown solutions for multi-story, light-frame wood construction. These systems include Anchor Tiedown Systems (ATS) for shearwall overturning restraint and Uplift Restraint Systems (URS) for roofs. Both systems utilize the same components (i.e. bearing plates, rods, couplers and shrinkage compensation devices), however the detailing, design and locations of these two systems differs.
For ATS, the Designer is responsible for the following:
- Developing the cumulative tension/compression loads,
- Determining the system displacement requirements as defined in ICC-ES Acceptance Criteria AC316 to satisfy code required drift equations (this specifically addresses the holdown part of the Equation 4.3-1 of the 2015 Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic)
- The location of each holdown/shearwall.
A more elaborate description of the Designer’s responsibilities for ATS can be found on page 23 of our Strong-Rod Systems design guide (F-L-SRS15). Simpson Strong-Tie incorporates this information into our design of the system and provides calculations and installation drawings to the Designer for review (a sample two-story run is shown below).
For URS, there are two different approaches to design that have different level of responsibilities. The Designer has fewer responsibilities when specifying a rod with a “system (CRTS)” evaluation report per AC391, but they are still responsible for developing the project’s wind uplift loads, specifying URS details and designing systems for shearwall overturning.
More requirements must be taken into account when designing and specifying a rod system using steel components with a “rod-run only (CRTR)” AC391 evaluation report, or no report at all. (A more elaborate description of the Designer’s responsibilities for URS can be found on page 43 of the Strong-Rod Systems design guide).
Based on the project information provided, the rod manufacturer will design and detail the system and submit calculations and installation drawings to the Designer for review.
Podium Deck Anchorage
The newest details published by Simpson Strong-Tie on podium deck anchorage solutions were developed to reduce the impact of an industry-wide challenge; resolving large tension forces (upwards of 50 kips) from four- to five-story narrow shearwalls into thin (often 10-14 inch thick) concrete podium decks. These solutions (e.g., design tables installation drawings and sample calculations), which are on our website, rely on special anchor reinforcement details using standard construction rebar.
More information about these solutions can be found this blog post and in the shallow anchor page on our website. It is important to note that the Designer is responsible for selecting the best anchorage detail to satisfy the demand loads based on his/her concrete specification and specific project conditions. The Designer is also responsible for designing and detailing the flexural reinforcement within the slab to achieve the amplified forces.
Adding standard installation details to your construction documents saves significant design time. However, the responsibility does not end with the copy-and-paste. The installation details by Simpson Strong-Tie contain details of many common applications. Some may not apply to your project, while others may require additional input from you. Of course, the Designer is permitted to use alternate details and is not limited to what is shown on the installation drawings. Providing complete information will save time and frustration during plan check and construction. Simpson Strong-Tie is here to answer questions and help with your next project. Please reach out to us by calling 800-999-5099 or by clicking here.
While consideration of bracing is important for any structural element, this is especially true for thin, singly symmetric cold-formed steel (CFS) framing members such as wall studs. Without proper consideration of bracing, excessive buckling or even failure could occur. Bracing is required to resist buckling due to axial or out-of-plane lateral loads or a combination of the two.
There are two methods for bracing CFS studs as prescribed by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Committee on Framing Standards (COFS) S211 “North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing – Wall Stud Design” Section B1. One is sheathing braced design and the other is steel braced design.
Sheathing braced design has limitations, but it is a cost effective method of bracing studs since sheathing is typically attached to wall studs. This design method is based on an assumption that the sheathing connections to the stud are the bracing points and so it’s limited by the strength of the sheathing fastener to stud connection. Due to this limitation, the Designer has to use a steel braced design for most practical situations. AISI S211 prescribes a maximum nominal stud axial load for gypsum board sheathing with fasteners spaced no more than 12 inches on center. AISI S211 Section B1 and the Commentary discuss the design method and assumptions and demonstrate how to determine the sheathing bracing strength.
Sheathing braced design requires that identical sheathing is used on each side of the wall stud, except the new AISI S240 standard Section B126.96.36.199 clarifies that for curtain wall studs it is permissible to have sheathing on one side and discrete bracing for the other flange not spaced further than 8 feet on center. The wall stud is connected to the top and bottom tracks or supporting members to provide lateral and torsional support and the construction drawings should note that the sheathing is a structural element. When the sheathing on either side is not identical, the Designer must assume the weaker of the two sheathings is attached to each side. In addition, the Designer is required to design the wall studs without the sheathing for the load combination 1.2D + (0.5L or 0.2S) + 0.2W as a consideration for construction loads of removed or ineffective sheathing. The Designer should neglect the rotational restraint of the sheathing when determining the wall stud flexural strength and is limited by the AISI S100 Section C5.1 interaction equations for designing a wall stud under combined axial and flexural loading.
Steel braced design may use the design methodology shown in AISI S211 or in AISI Committee on Specifications (COS) S100 “North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.”
Steel braced design is typically either non-proprietary or proprietary “clip and bridging” bracing, or “flat strap and blocking” bracing periodically spaced along the height of the wall stud.
Proprietary wall bracing and wall stud design solutions can expedite design with load and stiffness tables and software as well as offer efficient, tested and code-listed solutions such as Simpson Strong-Tie wall stud bridging connectors.
Steel braced design is a more practical bracing method for several reasons. First, during construction, wall studs go unsheathed for many months, but are subjected to significant construction loads.This is especially true for load-bearing, mid-rise structures. Second, some sheathing products, including gypsum wallboard, can be easily damaged and rendered ineffective if subjected to water or moisture. Third, much higher bracing loads can be achieved using mechanical bracing. IBC Section 2211.4 permits Designers to design steel bracing for axially loaded studs using AISI S100 or S211. However, S100-07 requires the brace to be designed to resist not only 1% of the stud nominal axial compressive strength (S100-12 changes this to 1% of the required compressive axial strength), but also requires a certain brace stiffness. S211 requires the Designer to design the bracing for 2% of the stud design compression force, and it does not have a stiffness requirement. . AISI S100 is silent regarding combined loading, but S211 provides guidance. S211 requires that, for combined loading, the Designer designs for the combined brace force determined using S100 Section D3.2.1 for the flexural load in the stud and either S100 or S211 for the axial load. In addition, the bracing force for stud bracing is accumulative as stated by S211 Commentary section B3. As a result, the periodic anchorage of the bracing to the structure such as strongbacks or diagonal strap bracing is required.
Some benefits and challenges of steel clip and bridging bracing include:
- Proprietary solutions, such as the Simpson Strong-Tie SUBH bridging connector, can significantly reduce installed cost since many situations require only one screw at each connection.
- Unlike strap bracing, u-channel bracing can be installed from one side of the wall.
- U-channel bracing does not create build-up that can make drywall finishing more difficult.
- Extra coordination may be required to ensure that u-channel bridging does not interfere with plumbing and electrical services that run vertically in the stud bay.
- Bracing for axial loaded studs requires periodic anchorage to the structure, such as using strongbacks or diagonal strap bracing.
- Bracing of laterally loaded studs does not require periodic anchorage since the system is in equilibrium as torsion in the stud is resisted by bridging (e.g., U-channel) bending.
Some benefits and challenges of steel flat strap and blocking bracing include:
- May be installed at other locations than stud punchout.
- Required to be installed on both sides of wall.
- Bumps out sheathing.
- Bracing for axial loaded studs requires periodic anchorage to structure, such as using strongbacks or diagonal strap bracing (same load direction in stud flanges).
- Bracing for laterally loaded studs requires design of periodic blocking or periodic anchorage to the structure (opposite load direction in stud flanges).
There are several good examples Designers may reference when designing CFS wall stud bracing. They include AISI D110 Cold-Formed Steel Framing Design Guide that may be purchased from www.cfsei.org, SEAOC Structural/Seismic Design Manual Volume 2 Example 3 that may be purchased from www.seaoc.org, and the Simpson Strong-Tie wall stud steel bracing design example on page 60 of the C-CFS-15 CFS catalog.
Cold-formed steel framing is a versatile construction material, but Designers need to carefully consider the bracing requirements of the AISI specification and wall stud design standard. What cold-formed steel wall bracing challenges have you encountered and what were your solutions?
This week’s post comes from Dr. H. Kit Miyamoto, S.E. Kit is CEO of Miyamoto International, a structural engineering firm and president of the nonprofit, Miyamoto Global Disaster Relief. He also is a California Seismic Safety Commissioner.
As soon as news spread that 7.8-magnitude and 7.3-magnitude earthquakes struck Nepal in April and May of this year, earthquake structural engineering experts from our firm, Miyamoto International, hopped on planes from three countries to offer assistance. We do this in hopes that our expertise and technical advice might help stricken communities recover; help them to build better and ultimately help save lives.
While structural engineers are not first responders, we are well equipped to assess whether it is safe for people to return to homes, businesses, schools and critical-services buildings. We also can help people understand why some buildings stand while others collapse. This information is essential. It is the only way to protect people from future tragedy.
On touch down in Nepal, we found the airport filled with frightened people leaving the country. It is always a bit sobering to see people leaving while you head in. We struck out for the hotel we could only hope was still standing. Once there, we found the building to be structurally sound, although uneasy guests opted to sleep in the courtyard, leaving us, the structural engineers, the only ones sleeping inside.
I expected the devastation in Kathmandu to be much greater than it was – we all did. Yet because the epicenter was about 50 miles from the capital, the quake’s power was partially dissipated by distance and the Kathmandu Valley’s soft river soil, which likely saved many lives and structures.
Nepal’s Minister of Education asked our team to examine some of the schools in remote areas. We drove into a village to a horrible find: a large, three-story school reduced to a rubble pile of brick, concrete and broken desks. What we found were columns made of bricks without any reinforcement. This is something I saw in schools in Sichuan, China in 2008, where poor construction practices left tens of thousands of school children vulnerable to disaster. And yet, I have to say that Nepal was lucky. Although more than 7,000 of the country’s schools were severely damaged or destroyed, the quake hit midday on a Saturday when students were not in school. Had the quake hit in the middle of a school day, tens of thousands of students would have died.
Driving out beyond the city, we found rural areas in the central and western regions particularly devastated, with entire villages destroyed and further isolated by road damage, closures, rugged terrain and the threat of landslides. As is the case in much of the world, unreinforced masonry construction presented the biggest problem. In rural Nepal – where traditional homes are made of stone, mud and wood – we found up to 90 percent of the structures destroyed. Whole villages were gone.
Around the world, the experts involved in construction – from the engineer and contractor to the building inspector – have to invest in constructing safe buildings. No corruption. No excuses. Build as if your children are attending that school or living in those homes and we will begin to have seismically resilient cities.
Many of the newer high-rise buildings in Kathmandu have also exhibited crippling damage and we have assessed more than 30 of these to date. Even when building codes are adhered to, a big gap exists between what code provides and what society expects. Even in places like Los Angeles and San Francisco, people don’t understand that. At one meeting in Kathmandu, luxury condo owners were stunned and angry to learn that the building they bought into met standards, but was still too heavily damaged to occupy. These buildings are not usable now. The financial loss is enormous.
We have to understand that people don’t have to die in earthquakes. Earthquakes don’t kill people; buildings kill people. Or more precisely, poorly constructed buildings. This is tragic and avoidable because we know how to design seismically strong buildings. When an earthquake strikes, our disaster response efforts include “knowledge transfer,” during which we train engineers, masons and contractors on simple seismic techniques that save lives and help communities “build back better.” Our profession has disaster-resilient solutions for new construction and retrofits.
At Miyamoto International, our mission is to save lives and positively impact economies through our work. In China, 169,000 lives were lost, including tens of thousands of students in 7,000 classrooms. In 2010 in Haiti, more than 200,000 people died. In Nepal, the earthquake killed more than 8,600 people. It doesn’t have to be this way. Building seismically resilient cities is possible. It is achievable. We can save lives.
This year, the new 5th Edition of the Florida Building Code was released and is now in effect statewide. First printed in 2002, the Florida Building Code was developed as part of Florida’s response to the destruction caused by Hurricane Andrew and other hurricanes in the state.
Another component, which I would like to take a closer look at in today’s post, is a separate Florida Product Approval system designed to be a single source for approval of construction products for manufacturers, Designers and code enforcers. This single system streamlines the previous approach of different procedures for product approval in different jurisdictions. While statewide approval is not required, many jurisdictions, manufacturers and specifiers prefer using the statewide system to the alternative, which is called local product approval. To ensure uniformity of the state system, Florida law compels local jurisdictions to accept state-approved products without requiring further testing and evaluation of other evidence, as long as the product is being used consistent with the conditions of its approval.
The rules of the Florida Product Approval system are in Florida Rule 61G20-3. Here is some basic information about Florida Product Approval.
The Florida Product Approval system is only available for “approval of products and systems, which comprise the building envelope and structural frame, for compliance with the structural requirements of the Florida Building Code.” So users will only find certain types of products approved there. However, if you work in areas where design for wind resistance is required, the Florida system can be a gold mine of information for tested, rated and evaluated products. Not only will you find products like Simpson Strong-Tie connectors with our ICC-ES and IAPMO UES evaluation reports, but thousands of other tested and rated windows, doors, shutters, roof covering materials and other products that don’t typically get evaluation reports from national entities. The specific categories of products covered under the Florida system are exterior doors, impact protective systems, panel walls, roofing, shutters, skylights, structural components and windows.
To protect consumers, a recent law passed in Florida states that a product may not be advertised, sold or marketed as offering protection from hurricanes, windstorms or wind-borne debris unless it has either State Product Approval or local product approval. Selling unapproved products in this way is considered a violation of the Florida Deceptive and Unfair Trade Practices Act.
Once a manufacturer understands the process for achieving a statewide approval, it is not difficult to achieve, but it can be expensive. The manufacturer must apply on the State of Florida Building Code Information System (BCIS) website at www.floridabuilding.org. To prove compliance with the code, the manufacturer must upload either a test report, a product certification from an approved certification entity, an evaluation report from a Florida Professional Engineer or Architect, or an evaluation report from an approved evaluation entity (ICC-ES, IAPMU UES, or Miami-Dade County Product Control). Then, the manufacturer must hire an independent validator to review the application to ensure it complies with the Product Approval Rule and that there are no clerical errors. Finally, once the validation is complete, staff from the Department of Business and Professional Regulation reviews the application. Depending on the method used to indicate code compliance, the application may be approved at that time or it may have to go through additional review by the Florida Building Commission.
Here are several ways to find out if a product is approved.
- For Simpson Strong-Tie products, we maintain a page on www.strongtie.com that lists our Florida Product Approvals.
- The Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation maintains a page where users can search Product Approvals by categories such as manufacturer, category of product, product name, or other attributes such as impact resistance or design pressure.
- A third-party group we work with has created a website called www.ApprovalZoom.com that lists various product evaluations and product approvals. In addition to listing Florida Product Approvals, they also list ICC-ES evaluation reports, Miami-Dade County Notices of Acceptance, Texas Department of Insurance Approvals, Los Angeles Department of Building Safety Approvals, AAMA certifications and Keystone certifications among others.
The process for searching for approved products on the Florida BCIS is fairly simple.
- Go to www.floridabuilding.org
- On the menu on the left side of the page, click on Product Approval. Or, click this link to go directly to the search page.
- On the Product Approval Menu, click on Find a Product or Application. Note that at this location you can also search for approved organizations such as certification agencies, evaluation entities, quality assurance entities, testing laboratories and validation entities.
- Ensure the proper Code Version is shown. The current 2014 Florida Code is based on the 2012 International Codes.
- At this point, several options can be searched. You can search for all approvals by a specific product manufacturer or a certain type of building component by searching Category and Subcategory, or if searching for a specific product, by entering the manufacturer’s name and the product name.
I hope you find the information contained in the Florida Product Approval system useful. Do you have other needs to find approved products?
This week’s post comes from Marlou Rodriguez who is an R&D Engineer at our home office. Prior to joining Simpson Strong-Tie, Marlou worked as a consulting engineer. His experience includes commercial, multi-family residential, curtain wall systems and the design of seismic bracing for non-structural components. Marlou is a licensed professional Civil and Structural Engineer in California, and too many other states to list. He received his bachelor’s degree in Architectural Engineering from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. Here is Marlou’s post.
I recently had the amazing opportunity to volunteer as a judge at The Tech Museum of Innovation’s The Tech Challenge 2015 in San Jose, Calif. My role involved evaluating projects designed by teams of students in grades 4-12 whose challenge was to build an earthquake-safe structure.
The museum’s annual Tech Challenge is a great event that excites young minds by introducing kids ages 8-18 to the science and engineering design process with a hands-on project based on solving a real-world problem. This year’s challenge was to build a scaled structure that supports live load and is earthquake safe. Simpson Strong-Tie was a sponsor of this year’s event and I was excited to be invited as a judge.
While The Tech Challenge is always focused on solving a real-world problem, no one could have anticipated how real this one would become. On the first day, April 25, I woke up to the horrifying news that a 7.8 magnitude earthquake had devastated Nepal. Thousands of lives were affected by this devastating earthquake. On that morning, this terrible tragedy thousands of miles away really highlighted how important this design challenge really is.
The Tech Challenge spans two days and is divided into three categories: elementary, middle and high school. The judging process consists of two phases. The first phase – a Pre-Performance Interview – gives students a chance to be creative in presenting their teams and designs. They discuss their roles within their team, describe how they chose their design and materials, and explain their method for solving problems and challenges. The second phase places their structures on a test rig and simulates three earthquake movements to test stability. Each structure was judged on its ability to:
- Stay standing during all three seismic events
- Return back to its original position
- Perform with the least amount of drift or the horizontal movement at the top most part of the structure.
As an engineer, I have spent 20 years designing structures to withstand earthquakes. But when I was in elementary school years ago, my thoughts were focused on which parking lot with new curbs, banks and rails or empty pools I could skateboard in. These kids are spending their weekends thinking of how to come up with a system to vertically support a high-rise building and ways to laterally support the building while dissipating the seismic energy induced by the testing rig.
It was amazing to see the ideas the children had in their designs. There were structures with fixed bases, some with innovative base isolation systems and even a few with mass dampers attached to the top of the structure. The lateral systems chosen by the children consisted of moment frames, braced frames and solid core systems – closely resembling the systems used in most buildings today.
The design rules included:
- Plan dimension of the building was limited to 16” square, while the base of the building could not exceed 20” square
- Structure height could not exceed six feet
- Floor-to-ceiling height had to be a minimum of 5 inches
- Gravity weight of the structure could not exceed 7 lbs.
In addition, there were some size and length limitations for the supporting materials, based on grade levels, and an additional live load was added to the structure by using bolts that were inserted into drilled holes. Not only did the teams have to adhere to the rules, but they also had to calculate the area of living space within their structure. All of these rules, calculations and how they overcame the challenges had to be documented in a detailed journal.
One design that stuck out to me was developed by a team of elementary school children. I had the pleasure of conducting their pre-performance interview. They had a typical rectangular building with an interior compression member made of stacked plastic PVC pipes. The lateral system comprised of some tension wires that were attached to the top of the building at the interior PVC column. The tension wires were angled as they went through the floors and finally attached to the four corners at the base. The central PVC column bear on the base but was not directly attached to the base. This was a form of base isolation. The four tension wires attached to the four corners of the building were turned toward the central PVC column and attached via a spring. The spring acted as a way for the central column to return to its original position. The design was very interesting and had some innovative features built into it. I could only imagine how it would have performed in the device performance phase of the event, since I wasn’t able to observe that part.
Earthquakes occur all over the world. These natural occurring events profoundly affect and change people’s lives. Although there are a lot of buildings that withstand earthquakes, there are still a lot of failures of existing buildings. Structural engineers learn from these failures and develop building codes and innovative products to resist future earthquakes. These future scientists, engineers and innovators that I had a pleasure of meeting are truly amazing kids. What struck me was how well these children were able to document their thought process and how they developed their final design. It makes me believe the future of this world is in great hands. I can’t wait to come back next year to judge another challenge.
Thanks for reading our blog – have a nice holiday weekend!
This week’s post comes from Scott Fischer who is an R&D Engineer at our home office. Since joining Simpson Strong-Tie in 2006, Scott has worked on cast-in-place connectors to concrete. He helped develop the current testing criteria for cast-in-place concrete products and also performed the testing and code report requirements needed for these product lines. Prior to joining Simpson Strong-Tie, Scott worked for nine years as a consulting engineer. His experience includes the design and analysis of concrete structures, including post-tensioned slab design, concrete lateral systems and foundations. Scott is a licensed professional engineer in the state of California and received his bachelor’s degree in Architectural Engineering from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo.
How often do you get the opportunity to high five a co-worker in the office? Maybe it’s when you just worked through a really complex calculation, or finally figured out that tough detail. Whatever it might be, there are times when we should raise a hand and celebrate the hard work that we do. So when we recently relaunched the Simpson Strong-Tie Strong-Rod™ Systems website, which includes a link to our new Shallow Podium Anchorage Solutions, there were a few high fives going around the office. With that in mind, we want to share the latest developments and continue our anchorage-to-concrete blog discussions that began in May 2012, continued with a March 2014 post referencing the Structure magazine article on anchor testing, and more recently one discussing our release of anchor reinforcement solutions for Steel Strong-Wall® shearwall to grade beams.
Anchor Reinforcement Testing and Research Program
Simpson Strong-Tie has been studying cast-in-place tension anchorage and anchor reinforcement concepts extensively over the past several years. Designing an anchor solution in a thin concrete slab for a high anchor demand load while meeting the ductility provisions of ACI 318-11, D.188.8.131.52 is extremely challenging. A strong industry-need for a safe, logical, yet economical design solution, led to a cooperative research program between Structural Engineers Association of Northern California (SEAONC) members and Simpson Strong-Tie. Testing was initiated by a Special Project Initiative grant from SEAONC to members Andy Fennell, P.E. (principal at SCL) and Gary Mochizuki, S.E. (principal at Structural Solutions at the time, now with Simpson Strong-Tie). We completed the program with continued involvement of SEAONC members. This is the second time we have partnered with SEAONC on non-proprietary anchor bolt testing. The first partnership, on sill plate anchor bolts in shear, resulted in successful code change provisions (led by SEAONC) restoring the capacity of these connections to pre-ACI 318 Appendix D values.
This current research program has focused on non-proprietary anchor reinforcement detailing that increases the nominal breakout capacity of concrete slabs. The anchor design satisfies the seismic ductility requirements of ACI 318-11 Appendix D and also significantly increases design capacity for wind applications. The project goal was to provide a design solution for the industry with independently witnessed proof testing of the anchor reinforcement detailing and application of ACI 318-11 Appendix D design procedures. (Note: Appendix D is moved into a new Chapter 17 in ACI 318-14.)
Significant Test Findings and Design Concepts
Anchoring to relatively thin concrete slabs introduces many unique challenges, so testing was bound to reveal some unique findings. The goal was to increase concrete breakout capacities and also satisfy the ACI 318 anchor ductility requirements with anchor reinforcement detailing. Here are some of the significant findings:
- Relatively thin concrete slabs do not allow the placement of anchor reinforcement to drag the load down into a larger mass of concrete as shown in RD.5.2.9. Modified anchor reinforcement was required (Figure 2). The required area of anchor reinforcement is based on D.184.108.40.206(a) where the required area of anchor reinforcement exceeds the anchor steel strength, or 1.2Nsa < (nAsfy x 0.707). The 0.707 is for the 45 degree slope of the bars. The proof testing showed the horizontal leg development outside the cone and continuity through the cone adequately developed the anchor reinforcement.
- ACI 318-11, D.4.2.1 states that when anchor reinforcement is provided, calculation of concrete breakout strength is not required. You know we love load path discussions, so where does the load go once it gets into the anchor reinforcement? The tests indicated that when the anchor reinforcement is provided, the concrete breakout area increases. This limit state is an extended breakout area past the anchor reinforcement bends that will form when that reinforcement is properly quantified and configured. The extended breakout is similar to multiple anchors loading the slab at each bottom bend of the anchor reinforcement. We have applied this concept to the calculations to evaluate extended breakout past the anchor reinforcement bends.
- Let’s follow the load path some more. Once the anchor is connected to the slab, what is the slab bending capacity? The testing showed that to achieve the anchorage capacity, the slab must have an adequate amount of flexural reinforcement with anchorage forces corresponding to ACI 318-11, Section D.220.127.116.11 applied to the slab. Guidance from this section says to apply the anchor tension loads obtained from either design load combinations that include E, with E increased by Omega, or 1.2 x Nominal steel strength of the anchor (Nsa). If the anchors are not oversized, designing for 1.2Nsa should be the most economical solution. For wind applications, the slab Designer should consider the project specified design loads.
- A vertical concrete block shear forming at the anchor bearing plate is possible if the anchor embedment is shallow and the anchor reinforcement is working to resist the initial anchor bolt breakout area. Our testing showed that this block shear is separate from Appendix D Pullout and is dependent on embedment depth, perimeter of the bearing surface and concrete strength.
- For anchors with shallow embedment that have a double nut and washer, the concrete breakout can begin from the top nut, thereby reducing the effective embedment depth. To address this, we eliminated the top nut from our specified anchor assembly kit to insure the breakout begins from the top of the fixed-in-place plate washer.
- The testing and modeling also allowed us to re-examine the appropriate bearing area for the plate washer, Abrg. The flat top surface of a nut is typically circular due to the chamfer at the points, so the resulting bearing area of the plate washer is circular extending out the thickness of the plate from the flat-to-flat dimension of the nut. For near-edge conditions, the side-face blowout capacity can be the controlling limit state and where the plate washer bearing area becomes more important.
- Edge testing with anchor reinforcement details showed that the breakout area will spread out and begin from the anchor reinforcement bends, like the mid-slab. In a mid-slab condition, the breakout slope follows the 1.5:1 or 35 degree slope used in Appendix D. However for the near edge, we found that 1.5 x effective embedment (hef) from anchor reinforcement bends only holds true parallel to the edge. Due to eccentricities, the breakout angle from the anchor reinforcement bends into the slab (perpendicular to the edge) is steeper and a steeper 45 degree slope should be used.
- The testing showed that even though we had cracks intersecting the anchor as it was loaded, the capacities exceeded uncracked assumptions. This is likely due to the flexural reinforcement running through the breakout cone providing continuity across the cracks. We’re still studying the effect of the flexural reinforcement, so for now we recommend assuming cracked concrete and providing a minimum of 4 – #5 flexural bars each way at anchor locations that require anchor reinforcement. Your slab design may require more flexural bars or they may already be there to meet other slab design requirements.
What Solutions Are Now Being Offered and How Do I Get Them?
With our newly launched Strong-Rod Systems webpages, you now go to the Shallow Podium Anchor link to find anchorage solutions. On the website, you will find anchor reinforcement detail drawings and design load tables with slab design recommendations. We’ll also be adding sample calculations, a guideline for selecting your anchor solutions, 3-D anchor reinforcement graphics and guidelines for addressing your condition if your installation is outside the scope of the current solutions that we offer. The anchor reinforcement is non-proprietary and is fabricated by the rebar supplier, but the configuration and placement is described in the details. In addition, you will see detailed information about the Simpson Strong-Tie Shallow Anchor Rod and Anchor Bolt Locator that is specified as a kit in the load tables. Note the absence of the top nut for reasons described above.
How Do We Specify It and Use It?
So now you know what is on the website but how do you put all these pieces together and apply them to a specific design? As a design professional, you will drive the bus on applying these details and design tables onto your drawings. Similar to specifying Strong-Wall® shearwalls or Strong Frame® moment frames, it just takes a little upfront coordination on your drawings. Typically, you’ll start with a slab key plan that shows the anchor bolt locations. You will need to know the design uplift forces from the light-frame structure above the slab and some basic project variables like specified concrete strength, slab thickness(es) and whether the structure is in high seismic or wind-controlled areas. Now you can choose the necessary design tables from the website by clicking on the individual design tables tab. Your key variables will help you select your specific table based on slab thickness, concrete strength, near edge, etc., and of course wind or seismic.
Once you have selected your design table, just match your project demand loads or your project-specified anchor bolt with the tabulated ASD or LRFD capacity to select the appropriate shallow anchor callout and reference detail that you can identify on the key plan. The detail callout from the table will send you to sheet SA1 where you will find the anchor reinforcement details and Shallow Anchor Kit recommended for your condition. As mentioned previously, the anchor reinforcement would be fabricated and bent by the rebar guys, but would follow these details. You can download the details shown on sheet SA1, place them on your construction documents and then coordinate them with your plans or schedules similar to how you might provide a shear wall schedule. The footnotes that accompany the tables provide important slab design information and other design and installation recommendations. You’ll soon be able to download the sample design calculations, use them as a tool to help follow the design procedure of the recommended details and submit with your project.
What if My Situation Does Not Fit the Details on the Website?
Though a great number of installations will be covered by these details and tables, there will be conditions that currently cannot be addressed with anchor reinforcement solutions. Installs that may be outside of the current scope could include: a demand uplift that’s too large, a slab that’s too thin, lower concrete strength, corner installs, double wood frame shear walls or two close anchors in tension. To address these conditions, we suggest alternatives like slight adjustment or reconfiguration of the shear walls, thickening slab edges, adding downturn concrete beams or extending the anchorage from above down into a cast-in-place wall or further extended down into the footing at ground level.
The joint SEAONC-Simpson Strong-Tie testing project has shown that anchor reinforcement details can greatly increase the breakout strength of concrete to support cast-in-place anchor bolts in concrete slabs. The testing also showed that the design provisions in ACI 318-11 Appendix D can be rationally applied to these anchor reinforcement details. The testing and Appendix D calculation approach are the basis of the details, load tables, graphics and application guides that can be found on our new Strong-Rod Systems webpages. We’re updating these pages as we create more content, so check back frequently. We look forward to working with you on your anchorage installation challenges and hope that some of these solutions will help you with projects you are working on today. How about a high five?
What do you think about these new anchorage solutions? Let us know by posting a comment below.
This week’s blog post was written by Neelima Tapata, R&D Engineer for Fastening Systems. She works in the development, testing and code approval of fasteners. She joined Simpson Strong-Tie in 2011, bringing 10 years of design experience in multi- and single-family residential structures in cold-formed steel and wood, curtain wall framing design, steel structures and concrete design. Neelima earned her bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering from J.N.T.U in India and M.S. in Civil Engineering with a focus on Structural Engineering from Lamar University. She is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of California.
Like most engineers, you are probably often working against tight deadlines, on multiple projects and within short delivery times. If you have ever wished for a design tool that would make your work easier, we have an app for that. It’s a simple, quick and easy-to-use tool called the “Steel Deck Diaphragm Calculator” for designing steel deck diaphragms. This tool is so user friendly you can start using it in minutes without spending hours in training. This app can be found on our website, and you don’t need to install anything.
The Steel Deck Diaphragm Calculator has two parts to it: “Optimized Solutions” and “Diaphragm Capacity Tables.” Optimized Solutions is a Designer’s tool and it offers optimized design solutions based on cost and labor for a given shear and uplift. The app provides multiple solutions starting with the lowest cost option using different Simpson Strong-Tie® structural and side-lap fasteners. Calculations can be generated for any of the solutions and a submittal package can be created with the code reports, Factory Mutual Approval reports, fastener information, corrosion information, available fliers, and SDI DDM03 Appendix VII and Appendix IX that includes Simpson Strong-Tie fasteners. Currently, this tool can be used for designing with only Simpson Strong-Tie fasteners. We will be including weld options in this calculator very soon. Stay tuned!
The Diaphragm Capacity Tables calculator can be used to develop a table of diaphragm capacities based on the effects of combined shear and tension.
When “Optimized Solutions” is selected, the following input is requested:
Step 1: Building Information ̶ Enter general information about the project, like the project name, the length and width of the building to be designed along with spacing between the support members such as joist spacing, is entered.
Step 2: Steel Deck Information ̶ Select the type of the steel deck along with the fill type. You can select the panel width from the options or select “Any panel width” option for the program to design the panel width. Choose the deck thickness or select the “Optimize” option for the program to design the optimum deck thickness. You also have an option of editing the steel deck properties to accommodate proprietary decks that are within the limitations of SDI DDM03 Section 1.2. Select the joist steel (support) thickness that the deck material will be attached to. For some fasteners, the shear strength of the fastener is dependent on this support thickness.
Step 3: Load Information ̶ Enter the shear and uplift demand and select the load type as either “wind” or “seismic” and the design method as “ASD” or “LRFD.”
Step 4: Fastener Information ̶ This is the last step of input before designing. In the fastener information section, you have the option to choose a structural and side-lap fastener or let the program design the most cost-effective structural and side-lap options. This can be done by checking the “Provide optimized solutions” option. The default options in the program are usually the best choice. However, you can change or modify as needed for your project. You can also set the side-lap fastener range or leave it to the default of 0 to 12 fasteners.
Now let’s work on an example:
Design a roof deck for a length of L = 500 ft. and a width b = 300 ft. The roof deck is a WR (wide rib) type panel, with a panel width of 36″. The roof deck is supported by joists that are ¼” thick and spaced at 5 ft. on center. Design the diaphragm for wind loading using Allowable Stress Design method. The diaphragm should be designed for a diaphragm shear of 1200 plf. and a net uplift of 30 psf. The steel deck is ASTM A653 SS Grade 33 deck with Fu = 45 ksi.
This information is entered in the web app, as seen below.
After inputting all the information, click on the Calculate button. You will see the five best solutions sorted by lowest cost and least amount of labor. Then click on the Submittal Generator button. Upon pressing this button, a new column called “Solution” is added with an option button for each solution. You can select any of the solutions. Below the Submittal Generator button, you can select various Code Reports and Approvals and Notes and Information selections that you want included in the submittal. After selecting these items, click on the Generate Submittal button. Now a pdf package will be generated with all of your selections.
Below is the screen shot of the first page containing Table of Contents from the PDF copy generated. The PDF copy contains the solutions generated by the program, then the detailed calculations for the solution that is selected. In this case, as you can see in the screen shot above, detailed calculations for solution #1 are included with XLQ114T1224 structural screws; XU34S1016 side-lap screws; 36/9 structural pattern and with (10) side-lap fasteners; diaphragm shear strength of 1205 plf. and diaphragm shear stiffness of 91.786 kip/in. The detailed calculations are followed by IAPMO UES ER-326 code report and FM Approval report #3050714.
Below is another example of a roof deck to be designed for multiple zones.
Design a roof diaphragm that will be zoned into three different areas. Zoning is a good way to optimize the economy of the roof diaphragm. Below are the required diaphragm shears and uplift in the three zones.
Zone 1: Diaphragm shear = 1200 plf.; Net uplift = 30 psf.; Length and width of zone 1 = 300 ft. x 200 ft.
Joist spacing = 5 ft.
Zone 2: Diaphragm shear = 1400 plf.; Net uplift = 0 psf.; Length and width of zone 2 = 500 ft. x 200 ft.
Joist spacing = 5.5 ft.
Zone 3: Diaphragm shear = 1000 plf.; Net uplift = 25 psf.; Length and width of zone 3 = 300 ft. x 200 ft.
Joist spacing = 4.75 ft.
Refer to the example above for all other information not given.
To design for multiple zones first select the Multi-Zone Input button, which is below the Fastener Information section as shown below:
When you click on the Multi-Zone Input button, you can see a toggle button appearing above a few selections as shown below. The default for the toggle button is , which means that this selection is same for all the zones. You can click on the toggle button to change to . Then the selection below changes to a label and reads Zone Variable. After all the selections that need to be zone variables are selected, click the Add Zone button. Keep adding zones as needed. A maximum of five zones can be added. After creating the zones, add the information for each zone and click the Calculate button.
When the Calculate button is clicked, the results for each zone are listed. The five best solutions are listed for each of the zones as shown below.
Similar to previous example, select the Generate Submittal button to select the solutions to be included in the submittal generator. Select one solution for each zone and then check the items like the code reports or notes to be included in the submittal. Click Generate Submittal to create the submittal package.
See the screen shot below for the steps.
Now that you know how easy it is to design using our web app, use this app for your future projects. We welcome your feedback on features you find useful as well as your input on how we could make this program more useful to suit your needs. Let us know in the comments below.